Casino Game Protection:
A Comprehensive Guide

30 Years of Research
In One Definitive Volume!

CASINO GAME PROTECTION -- A COMPREHENSIVE GUIDE

Table of Contents

Steve Forte CHAPTER 1 -- GETTING STARTED

Game Protection
Overview, Cheaters, Card Counters, Advantage Players, Table Game Procedures

Cheaters
Crossroaders, Hustlers, Professionals and Amateurs
Knowledge, Experience, Judgement, Planning, Innovation, Technique, Money, Social Skills
Organization
Crews, Captain, Takeoff Man, Mechanic, Support Players, The Inside Man
Specialists
Motivation
Desperation, Ego, Larceny, Revenge, Industry Dislike, Independence

Advantage Players
History, Tricks, Exploitable Loopholes, Equipment Bias, The Peek Game, Other Games

The Elements of a Scam
Psychology
The Turn
Dealers, Supervisors, Surveillance, Customers
Signals
Call-in, Scrub, Stop/Go, George/Tom, Heat, Brush, Deviation, Multiple Systems, Card Signaling, Count Signaling, Sky Signals, Verbal, Physical
Employee Theft and Inside Collusion

Electronic Player Assistance
Signaling Devices
Thumpers, Transceivers, Transmitter-Receivers, Loops, Receiving Devices
Computers
Blackjack Computers, Roulette Computers, Technical Features, Confidential Report, Miniaturization, RF Leakage, Developments
Cameras
Methods of Concealment, Systems, Boosters, Applications, Imager Efficiency, Body Worn VCRs, Remote Stations, Uploading to the Internet, Developments
The Future
Wearable Gadgets, Surgically Implanted Devices, Hi Tech Wizards

What is Cheating?
Cheating Statues, Definitions, Conspiracies
The Law and Card Counting, Advantage Play, Signaling and Devices
Questionable Scenarios

Summary
Blackjack CHAPTER 2 -- BLACKJACK

Mucking
The Steal, One Card Mucks, Chopping, Drink Muck, Double Down Mucks, Two Players, Two Card Mucks, Cleaning Up

Switchers
Double Chop, Feeders, One Player/Two Hands, One Hand Switch/Two Hands

Shiners
Hand Held Shiner, Cigarette Shiner, Chip Shiner, Money Shiner, Glass Shiner

Check Moves (Outside)
Capping/Pressing
Blackjack Cap, Bottom Bet Cap, Quadruple Down
Pinching
Quick Pinch, Scratch Pinch, Bottom Check Pinch
Claimers

Cutting Techniques
Wobble Cut, Cut Peek, Riffle Cut, Multiple Card Peek, Mechanical Peeker, Cutcard Peek

Dealer Agent Scams

Slug Scams and Stacking the Deck
False Shuffles
Carrying a Slug, Scrape Cut, Center Stripping, Other Methods
Classic Slug Scam
High Low Slug Scam
Stacking the Deck
Lay Stack, Pickup Stack, Riffle Stack, Circle Stack, New Deck Stack Nullifying the Cutoffs
Nullifying the Cut
Pop Cut, Laying a Brief, Short Cut, Cutcard Brief, Cutcard Shift

Coolers
Cold Deck (single deck), Cold Deck (multi-deck), New Deck Coolers, Burncard Coolers,
Slug Coolers, "Deadlock," Future Coolers

Peek/Flash Scams
Peeks
Back Peek, Heel Peek, Bubble Peek, Fan Peek
Flashing
Classic Flash, Bubble Flash, Gap Flash, Hitcard Flash, Holecard Flash
Shoe Peeks
Nail Peek, Fan Peek, Holecard flash, In the Shoe Peek

Check Moves (Inside)
Dumping the Game, Pushing Off to Agents, Sizing in High, Color Change/Color In Cap, Mixed Color Overpay, Blackjack Cap, Winning Hand Cap, Other Methods

Strong Arm Cheating
Pitch Moves
Wrong Hand, Switching the Player's Hand, Switching the Holecard, Capping the Deck, Cheap Shots
Shoe Moves
Playing the Topcard, Holdout Deal, Shoe Cap, Holecard Switch
Gaffed Shoes
Electronic Peek Shoe, Peek Shoe with Shiner, Other Methods

Summary
Card Counting

CHAPTER 3 -- CARD COUNTING

Short History
Blackjack Analysis, Early System Players, Strategies Hit the Printed Page, Beat the Dealer, The Industry Deals with Skilled Players

The Fundamentals
Basic Strategy
What is it worth? Rule Variations, The Public's Play, Basic Strategy and the Industry

Card Counting Systems
Balanced Counts, Un-Balanced Counts, Which Count is Best? (So Many Counts), How far can we go?, Which Count is Right for Gamers?, How Counts Look and Play

True Count
Traditional Methods, Short Cuts, Conversion Factors, Pivot

Playing Strategy
Strategy Indexes, Early Count Playing Strategies, The Top Plays

Betting Strategies
Optimal, Graduated, Parlay, Take Back, Spreading Down, Multiple Hands, Color Schemes, Cover Zones, Delayed Bet Spreads, Back Counting, Bet Spread Mathematics

The Card Counter's Bankroll
Pocket Bankroll, Risk, Kelly Criterion, Optimal Bet Size

Pseudo Card Counting Systems
Card Counting Props, Mechanical Devices and Computers

The Players
Tourists, Card Watchers, Imitators, Amateurs, Professional Players, Professional Teams

Card Counting - Perspective
Precision?, Computer Simulations, Understanding the Player's Edge, Probability of Winning, Risk of Ruin, Win Rates, Percentage Advantage versus Unit Win

Detection / Evaluation
Strategy Deviations, Bet Spread, Win Rate, Taking Your Time, Other Factors

Countermeasures and Barring
Summary
Advantage Play (Blackjack) CHAPTER 4 -- ADVANTAGE PLAY (Blackjack)

Playing Holecard
Basers, Front Loaders, Index Dealer, The Express Play, Holecard Strategy

Steering
Bottom Card Steering, Center Cut Estimation, Playing the Stack

Playing the Turn
Shuffle Tracking
A Short History
Playing Location
Strip Flash, Lops, High Riffles
Slug Tracking
Grab Size, Pre-Shuffle Slugs, The Tracking Process, Mapping, Practice, Memory, Advantage, Cutcard, Dealer Selection, Strategy Features
Criss-Cross, Reload, 6 Packet Criss-Cross, Indicator Slugs, Dilution Shuffle, Tracking Bottoms
Slug Tracking Computers
Countermeasures, Tests, Plugging the Cutoffs, Caesar's Switch, Splits, Detection
Sequence Tracking
The Predictable Riffle Shuffle
Ace Tracking: Keycards, Double Keys, Triple Keys
Other forms of Sequential Information
Betting/Steering, Dealer Selection, Advantage, Teams, Maps
Sequential Tracking Computers, Captain Crunch, Locking into Two Sequences
Countermeasures, Tests, Number of Riffles, Stripping, Detection
Pseudo Shuffle Systems
Randomness, Bias, Clumping, Simulating Human Shuffles

Shuffling Machines
Continuous Shufflers
Loopholes, Card Counting, Skewed Frequency Distributions, Card Shenanigans
Non-Continuous Shufflers
Shuffle Master, Other Shufflers, Scams and Loopholes, Regulatory Approval

The Science of Shuffling
The Riffle Shuffle, Stripping the Deck, Boxing the Deck, The Best Procedures, Shuffle Speed, Dead Game Shuffling, Alternative Shuffling Procedures for Suspect Play
Perspective
Summary
Craps - casino cheating CHAPTER 5 -- CRAPS

The Dice
Manufacturing Process, Manufacturing Variances, Precision Dice, Legal Specifications

Crooked Dice
Passers, Missouts, Weight, Flats, Bevels, Edge Work, Surface Work, Tops, Double Number, Magnetic Dice, Other Variations, Crooked Gambling Supply Houses
Dice Switches
Palm Switch, Thumb Switch, No Spill Switch, Money Switch, Jacket Switch,One Die Switches, Dice Shell, Other Methods, Cleaning Up
Scams with Gaffed Dice
The Old Days
The Casino Logo and Serial Number, Hot Stamp Machines, Stamps, Vulnerability
Scams/Percentage Dice, Scams/Tops, Scams/Double Number, The Craps Cooler
Detection/Tests
Visual Inspection, Spotting, Balancer, Dice Square, Edge Test, Surface Test, Micrometer, Magnet Test
Controlled Dice Shots
Push Shot, Spin Shot, Puck Shot, Walking the Die, Off the Table Shot, Other Shots
Countermeasures, The Back Wall, The String
Scams with Controlled Dice Shots
One Die Lay down
Setup, The Lay Down, Money Laydown
Outside Crap Moves
Proposition Hustles, Past Posting, Money Switch, Pressing the Don't, Other Methods
Dealer-Agent Scams
The Catch, Rail Moves, Handing Off, Comebet Overpays, Putting Bets Up, Thumb Busting, Totaling, Capping, Call Bet Scams, Miscalling, Other Methods
Stealing from the Box
Stealing Checks, Handing off to the Floor, Stealing Cash, Hanging a Bill
Setting the Dice
The System, Testing the System, Test Results

Summary

Roulette - casino security CHAPTER 6 -- ROULETTE

Past Posting
Solo, Past Posting with Props, Team Past Posting, Two Color Past Posting, Runners
Losing Bet Switches
Conversion Scams

Outside Ball Manipulation
Manipulating the Table, Steel Core Roulette Balls, Unusual Cheating Devices
Dealer-Agent Scams
Dealer Past Posting, Column Past Posting, Overpays, Double Check Past Post, Back Palm Past Post, Pushing Dirty Stacks, Other Methods
Gaffing the Wheel
Early Gaffed Wheels, Gaffing the Modern Wheel, Gaffed Wheels versus Biased Wheels
Bias Wheels
Bias, Collecting the Data, Analyzing the Data, Standard Deviation, Chi Square

Inspection
Visual, Table, Bowl, Spindle, Ball Track, Canoes, Number Strip, Rotor, Pockets, Cone, Inside Bowl, Ball, Software Analysis, Manufacturer's Guidelines

Roulette Computers
How Roulette Computers Work, Problems and Obstacles, The Capricious Nature of the Wheel, Overseas Conditions, The Modern Wheel, New Technologies

Visual Prediction
History
The Basics
Ball Track Bias, Rotor Speed, Ball Speed, Bounce, The Strategy
Real World Conditions
Roulette Computers versus Visual Prediction
Section Shooting
Skill, Section Shooting Versus Visual Prediction, It Can Be Done, Procedures, Roulette Specialists, House Dealers, Monte Carlo
Dealer's Signatures
Theory, Strategies, The 17 Rule

Summary

Baccarat - casino gaming protection CHAPTER 7 -- BACCARAT

The Slug Scam
Mini-Baccarat
Baccarat's Vulnerability, Recording the Cards, 6-Row System, False Shuffles, The Zarrow Shuffle, Faking the Shuffle-Check, Faking the Wash
Big Table Baccarat
New Deck Slugs, Flashing During the Wash, Peek Stack
Slug Scams and Technology
Beating the Shuffler, Hidden Cameras and False Shuffles

Strong Arm Cheating
Shoe Peeks
Passing the Shoe, Lip Peek, Holdout Peek, Shoe Peek with Lid
Gaffed Shoes
Prism Shoes, Remote Control Slug Shoe
Coolers
Mucking/Switching
John Scarne, Stranger Cards, Macau Scam
Other Methods

Card Counting
Effect of Removal, Baccarat's Dependent Nature, Thorp and Griffin Studies
Advantage Play
Shuffle Tracking
Slug Tracking, Sequence Tracking, Tracking Nines, Locking into Two Sequences
Back Card Steering
Topcard Advantages, First Six Card Advantages
Other Methods
Capping, Pinching, Past Posting, Moving Losers, Late Bets
Summary
Casino Security CHAPTER 8 -- ASIAN GAMES / NOVELTY GAMES

PAI GOW

The Dice
Asian Style Dice, Three Dice Frequencies, Dealing Orders
The Dice Cup
Metal Cups, Protection Cups, Acrylic Cubical Cup

Nullifying the Dice
Rank Methods, No Shake, Miss-Call, Cup Peek, Lid Control, Controlled Shakes
Crooked Dice: Magnetic Dice, Misspots, Percentage Dice, Other Possibilities
Dice Switches, Cup Switches

Marked Tiles
Sanding, Nicking, Scratching, Red Work, Finish Work, Other Methods, Hi Tech Marking

Stacking the Tiles
Culling, False Shuffles, No Touch False Shuffle, Professional "Shufflers"
Applications: Classic Stack, Stacking with Marked Tiles, The Odd-Even Stack, Delivery Stacking

Strong Arm Cheating
Mucking
One Tile Muck, Dupes, Cleaning Up
Switching
Double Chop, Feeders, Wrong Position Switching
Reflection Peek, Flash Scam
Strong Arm Cheating
Switching the Player's Hand, Pushing and Paying Losers, Other Methods

Freezing the Table
PAI GOW POKER
Skillful Play
The Dice, Crooked Dice, Stacking, The Asian Deal, Starter Cards, Strong Arm Cheating

SIC BO
Electronic Dice

NOVELTY GAMES
Mathematical Analysis, Dependent Trials, The Shuffle, Cut, Deal, Topcarding, Playing Holecard, Networking, Cheating, Novelty Game Basic Strategies

Summary
Poker - Texas Hold'em CHAPTER 9 -- POKER

Collusion
Local Courtesy, Playing Tophand, Middling, Pre-Arranged Strategies, Playing Cousins, Playing out of the Same Pocket, Perception, Tournaments

Shuffle Related Scams
Culling, Weeding, Faking the Scramble/Wash, Top Slug Controls, Push Through Full Deck Control

Nullifying the Cut
False Cuts, Slip Cut, In-Stripper Brief

Applications
The Kill, Slug Scam, Dealing Known Holecards, Flop Moves, Bad Beat Jackpots, Riffle Stacking, The Perfect Shuffle, The Peek Stack, Deal'em Back, Double Duke, The Delayed Stack, Slug or Cooler, Bin Cooler

Holding Out
Steals, Holding Out, Seven Card Stud Scenario, Hold'em, Holding Out with Inside Collusion, Cleaning Up
Mechanical Holdout Devices
Knee-Spread, Bean Shooter, Short Sleeve, Slick Sleeve, Bugs
Countermeasures
Changing the Deck, Count Down, Dupes, The Card Index
Strong Arm Cheating
Peeks
Heel Peek, 2-Down Peek
False Deals
Pitch Second Deal, Stud Second Deal, Bottom Deal, Greek Deal, Mechanic's Grip
Coolers
Buy-In Cooler, Chip Rack Cooler, Mechanical Cold Deck Machines
Capping the Deck
Check Copping, Spraying the Pot
Sending The Hand Over, Goose Neck, Spectators
Cheap Shots
Intentional String Bets, Other Methods
Summary
Universal Casino Gambling Scams CHAPTER 10 -- UNIVERSAL SCAMS

Subs
Double Apron, Spring Loaded Sun, Sleeve Sub, Fly Sub, Shirt Sub, Tie Sub
Swinging without Subs, Other Methods

Chip Cup and the Double Sided Checks

Administrative Scams
Marker Scams, fills, credits, openers, closers, counterfeit checks (chips), counterfeit traveler's checks, counterfeit money, stolen payroll checks, theft
Marked Cards
Short History
Early Playing Cards, Steamboats, Stamped Decks, Crooked Gambling Supply Houses, Early Scams, Casino Scams
Inside and Outside Work, Combinations, The Shoe Game, European Style Blackjack, Other Games, Advantages, Card Control

The Work (Inside Systems)
Blockout
Matching the Ink, Enlarged Diamonds, Humps, White Ink
Cutout
Shade
Formulas, Reading Shade, Line Shade, Highway Shade, Spot Shade, Juice, Flash, White-on-White, Partial and Natural White-on-White, Triangle Shade
Sorts
Overall Back, Border Sorts, White Backed Sorts, Percentage Sorts
Trims
Overall Back, White Back, Cutters and Rounders
Sand/Scratch, The Shine, Luminous Readers, Rounders

The Work (Outside Systems)
Playing The Bend, Snaking (Waving), Top Carding Aces, Buckle, Plastic Cards
Daub, Daub Substitutes, Concealment, Graphite, Nail Nicking, Knockoff Sticks
Touch Work
Rough and Smooth, Punch, Blackline, The Flex
Factory Defects, One Way Backs, Creekers, Electronic Marked Cards, Other Methods

Tests for Detection
Box, Pip Configuration, Ribbon Spread, Riffle Test, Angled Light, Size Test, Bevel Test, Shade Tests, Gun Test, Squeeze Tests, Touch Tests, Filters, Blacklight, The Eyes, Evaluating the Play

Summary
Casino Cheating Detection CHAPTER 11 -- DETECTION

Industry Line of Defense
Dealers, Floor, Pit and Shift Supervisors, Casino Managers
Surveillance
Capability, The Real Benefits, Cheaters versus Surveillance, Software Detection
Griffin Investigations and Similar Agencies

Detection Skills
Profiling
Age, Ethnic Background, Sex, Image, Built-In Profiles, Disguises
Awareness, Knowledge, Thought Process, Realities, Detection Tips
Table Game Procedures
Uniformity, Anticipation, Which Procedures are Best, Guidelines for Dealers and Supervisors, Protection Against Cheating, Questions, Resistance to Change, Evaluation
Game Protection Mathematics
Percentage of Winning Hands, Strange Results, Poisson Distribution, The Law of Averages, Standard Deviation, Standard Deviation Shortcuts, Bayes Theorem
The Casino Hold Percentage
Measuring Game Performance, What Should My Games Be Holding, Fluctuation
Rating Systems
Weak Basic Strategy Players, Error Costs, Frequency of Error, Player Profiles
Myths and Misconceptions
Knowledge Traps, Cheating, Marked Cards, Counting, Shuffle Tracking, Betting Systems, Do Casinos Cheat?, The Short Shoe, Master Hi Low, Preferential Shuffling
The Future of Game Protection
Biometrics, Accountability Systems, Automation, Realities
Training, Sources and Experts
Background, Books, Videos, Software, The Internet, Lectures, Surveillance Footage, Personal Contacts, The Ultimate Source
Recommendations
Card Counting, Shuffle Tracking, Advantage Play, Craps, Roulette, Baccarat, Asian Games, Poker, Mathematics, Surveillance/Security, General, Cheating
Web Sites, Retail Outlets, Experts
Summary

Final Thoughts
Book Expectations, Future Editions, Casino Game Protection Web Site


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